Build a golden image for your RHEL homelab with Image Builder

In How I built a homelab with Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL), I laid out my plans for revamping my home lab using as many Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) and Red Hat-adjacent tools as I could get my hands on.

My goals are:

  • Learn the processes.
  • Teach others some systems administration good practices.
  • Automate my homelab as much as possible.

The first article covered my goals and the process for building a new “non-production” RHEL 9 virtual machine to act as a jump server and collection point for different configuration files, scripts, and the like.

I built a basic server and added only a few tools, such as the web console and Image Builder. In this article, I will focus on building a customized template that:

  1. I can deploy repeatedly.
  2. I can automate its upkeep.

What is Image Builder?

The short version is that Image Builder is the intended future installation experience for RHEL. Image Builder is not a product but a feature within the distribution.

With Image Builder, administrators can deploy different RHEL versions on different platforms (hardware, virtual, cloud) with different configurations. There are three ways to interact with Image Builder:

  • A web service through the Red Hat Console
  • A web-UI-based tool
  • A command line-based tool

Build the first image

A vanilla image should be enough to get started. This image undoubtedly will be one of many I create throughout this project. I’m starting with the web console (Cockpit) Image Builder application to get the ball rolling. The URL to connect to it is: https://{hostname}:9090/composer.

If you don’t have Image Builder installed yet, you can install it with DNF:

# dnf install -y cockpit-composer.noarch

Then enable the socket to start automatically:

# systemctl enable --now osbuild-composer.socket

Now you can access Image Builder using the web console:

Image Builder web console

Use the Create blueprint wizard to define what the initial image should look like. Start by giving the image a helpful name and description:

Create blueprint with descriptive name

The next step is to decide what output format the image should be. Since my bare-metal server will be a hypervisor for my rebuilt lab, a QEMU-based qcow2 image makes the most sense; your environment may dictate differently.

Choose an image output type

The first step in the wizard also asks what the Image Size should be. The default and minimum are 2GB. For now, this should be fine.

I’ll move on to customizations. The next screen shows the option to pick a hostname. I will leave this blank and assign a hostname later when I deploy these images.

Create image - set hostname

Next, define a user. I will create a service account named ansible so that I can easily deploy system roles across a small test environment (as I’ll do in the next article in this series).

Create image - set username and password

Don’t forget to assign a password and create an SSH key. Adding a key here provides everything needed to use the ansible account across the fleet. Also, check the Server administrator box to add the ansible account to the wheel group.

Next, I’ll add a few packages I want across my fleet. Again, your choices here may vary. I’ve only added a couple for now, such as tmux and vim-enhanced.

Create image - install packages

Finally, review the configuration and save the blueprint.

Create image - review settings

Create an image

You just created a blueprint for a RHEL 9 virtual machine (VM). Think of this as a recipe for a meal you will prepare. It’s time to try it.

Either from the wizard you just walked through or from the main page of the Image Builder app, select Create image to begin the build process.

The image is added to the build queue
Image build progress

In the background, Image Builder pulls all the relevant packages from the Red Hat Content Delivery Network (CDN), defines the filesystem layout, and builds the boot image.

Depending on your hardware and internet connection, this process takes a few minutes. But when the image is complete, you won’t immediately have to go in and update all your packages.

Image build complete

Once the image finishes, you can use the qcow2 artifact to build the first test client machine. The easiest way is to use your browser’s Download functionality to grab the qcow2 file and upload it to your test environment.

Image build complete

However, I want to make additional changes to my image before deploying it.

Add features to the vanilla image

I want to ensure I have a well-defined image before deploying it repeatedly. To do this, I will switch tools.

The local, web-based Image Builder tends to be the slowest to get new features due to its ties to the RHEL release development process. It currently lacks a built-in mechanism for updating templates regularly. Remember, the goal for this lab is to operate as hands-off as possible.

I’ll use SSH to connect to the jump server for this step. I don’t plan on this jump server living a long life, so I don’t have to worry about creating a user account or importing any of the preferences. This approach is not advisable for production or long-lived servers, but I’ll fix this later with the golden image.

I pulled some knowledge from a couple of different tools for this next part:

(In this industry, it is often not what you know, but whether you know how and where to find the knowledge you need.)

Next, install the tools:

# composer-cli blueprints list

# composer-cli blueprints save rhel-base

# vim rhel-base.toml

name = "rhel-base"
description = "Vanilla RHEL 9.x"
version = "0.0.2"
modules = []
groups = []
distro = ""

name = "tmux"
version = "*"

name = "vim-enhanced"
version = "*"


name = "ansible"
description = "Ansible Service Account"
password = " <redacted> "
key = " <redacted> "
groups = ["wheel"]

Make a few additions:

name = "rhel-base"
description = "Vanilla RHEL 9.x"
version = "0.0.2"
modules = []
groups = []
distro = ""

name = "tmux"
version = "*"

name = "vim-enhanced"
version = "*"

name = "cockpit"
version = "*"


mountpoint = "/var/log"
size = "4 GiB"

enabled = ["cockpit"]

name = "ansible"
description = "Ansible Service Account"
password =  <redacted> "
key = " <redacted> "
groups = ["wheel"]

I added stanzas for Cockpit (the web console) and an enabled services section to ensure the web console starts on boot.

You can add a 4GB filesystem for /var/log. (You can always add more later.)

Finally, add a user description for the Ansible service account. You can also check the documentation for additional customization ideas.

For now, though, import the modified blueprint and execute a build:

# composer-cli blueprints push rhel-base.toml

# composer-cli compose start rhel-base qcow2
Compose bb259a2e-cbd6-4fe9-99bf-3a9b28e2cbcf added to the queue

You can keep an eye on the build by running the status command:

# composer-cli compose status
bb259a2e-cbd6-4fe9-99bf-3a9b28e2cbcf RUNNING  Mon Feb 20 15:50:14 2023 rhel-base   	0.0.3 qcow2       	
209cfd00-a57b-4458-8de0-df0942e2cc65 FINISHED Mon Feb 20 15:05:26 2023 rhel-base   	0.0.1 qcow2        	2147483648

Once done, the build will show a FINISHED status like when the job kicked off from the web console earlier. I’ll hold onto the finished qcow2 image for the next article.

Automate future builds

Now I have a good image I can duplicate to build and test what will eventually become my golden image. This planned image will have as many of the latest updates as possible, the preferred packages, user data, and filesystems.

From there, I’ll be able to add more layers of packages and configurations to the base image to build out the different services I’ll be hosting in the lab.

However, I don’t want to worry about creating a new image manually. As the tool evolves, there will be better options for this, but for today, I plan on using systemd timer to build an updated image on a scheduled basis.

I’m adding a systemd timer to trigger a rebuild every Sunday night. (Did you know about creating your own systemd timers? I didn’t! I found the article Use systemd timers instead of cronjobs during my research!)

First, you need to create a systemd service to call the composer command:

# vim /etc/systemd/system/composerBuild.service

	Description=Rebuilds a vanilla RHEL template through image builder

	ExecStart=/bin/composer-cli compose start rhel-base qcow2


Second, create a systemd timer to call the service:

# vim /etc/systemd/system/composerBuild.timer

	Description=Timer to rebuild vanilla RHEL template using image builder



# systemctl enable composerBuild.timer

As a paranoid sysadmin, I want to verify that the timer is working:

# systemctl status *timer

… output truncated …

● composerBuild.timer - Timer to rebuild vanilla RHEL template using image builder
 	Loaded: loaded (/etc/systemd/system/composerBuild.timer; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
 	Active: active (waiting) since Thu 2023-02-23 12:04:13 CST; 2min 14s ago
  	Until: Thu 2023-02-23 12:04:13 CST; 2min 14s ago
	Trigger: Sun 2023-02-26 00:00:00 CST; 2 days left
   Triggers: ● composerBuild.service

Keep in mind this is a “quick-and-dirty” approach. As I add tools like Ansible Automation Platform and Red Hat Satellite, I’ll have better options for automating the process of providing up-to-date templates to deploy.

Wrap up

I covered a lot of ground in this article. I am enjoying the process and looking forward to seeing what the lab looks like on the other side of this series!

Here, I talked about the ideas of a golden image and took steps toward building the first couple of client systems that I’ll use in the next article.

Next time, I will take the test systems and add RHEL system roles to the golden image. System roles are a codified method of configuring Linux subsystems such as firewalls and SSH using ansible-core and deploying these configurations at scale.

If you follow this series, I would love to connect with you. You can easily find me online.

This article originally appeared on the Enable SysAdmin blog.

5 ways to make an impact on your IT community

In 5 changes to help grow your IT career, I discussed establishing a learning mindset and forming daily habits to build your mental muscles. Learning will help you grow as a person (and hopefully as an employee), but work is not the extent of our existence.

People need people—in technology as much as anywhere else. So, how do you take your daily learning habits and use them to help others? I have a few thoughts on the topic. (I know. That likely won’t surprise anyone who knows me.)

1. Share your knowledge in the workplace

You can probably relate to this: When I was only a few years into my Linux career, I took a contract working for a company that had seen many turnovers in the preceding years.

The infrastructure was understandably behind in terms of refreshes and security patches. In and of itself, that would be a difficult task to overcome. However, that wasn’t the worst of it.

Several generations of systems administrators came and went after the original architecture was developed and implemented. I’m sure you can guess what comes next: Their documentation was… lacking. The original sysadmin was also a huge fan of scripting, custom compiling applications, and finding ways to over-engineer solutions.

Hoarding knowledge doesn’t make you a better operations person, nor does it keep your job more secure. Sharing information and ideas is essential to a healthy organization.

Even if you are a one-person IT shop, do you think you can remember every facet of every decision you make? For that matter, do you remember what you ate for breakfast yesterday?

How do you overcome this problem? Start an internal wiki, a Git repo, or at the very least, a text document on a shared drive.

Yes, that’s a lot of work, but take it from a recovering sysadmin; it’s worth it. Start with one process or one application at a time. Set a goal each week to add a little more. You’ll be amazed at how much knowledge you accumulate over a month.

2. Contribute to a publication

Guess what? Enable Sysadmin articles aren’t written by a highly trained team of bloggers who sit around a table at an undisclosed location and make this fantastic content. A small core team manages the site, reviews the content, and makes suggestions. The real heart of Enable Sysadmin is the community of dozens of volunteers who have a passion for a topic and write about it. (Yeah, I am not getting paid to write this blog. I am just passionate about growing and seeing others grow as well.)

3. Join a community

Some of my best ideas come in the wake of a conference or a meetup where I sit around a dinner table for hours chatting with fellow nerds and techies.

Inevitably, we talk about a problem one of us is facing, and someone else has a solution. I am just a person who loves writing and telling stories. However, I couldn’t grow without the help of those more competent individuals around me. (Yes, it’s usually me trying to do something dumb in my home lab and someone else bailing me out.)

Look online. Look in your city. There are meetups and communities for just about every conceivable interest. Some of my favorites are DevOps Days or Linux user groups (LUGs).

Can’t find one? Start a community! It’s not as complicated as it seems. Find a place to meet, pick a time, find something to talk about for 15 minutes, and invite your friends and or coworkers.

4. Volunteer

Many charitable organizations need help. Find an organization that focuses on an issue you care about and email them or call their office. Tell them what you have to offer and see what happens.

Not only can you make a real difference in your community, but you can also sharpen your skills in the process. (Yeah, that also looks good on a resume.)

5. Be a mentor

If you’ve been in IT for a few years, find someone new to the field and take them under your wing. If you are new to IT, find someone doing something you find interesting and introduce yourself.

Talk to your mentee. Form a relationship. Get to know their interests and their drives. You have more to say than you think you do. I owe much of my career to having trusted relationships around me, guiding me.

Many companies (Red Hat is one of them) have mentorship programs where you are matched with someone you can lead—or who can lead you—in a particular career path or technology.

Wrapping up

I am writing this on an international flight home from Tech Exchange, an internal Red Hat conference where technologists meet to learn about our product portfolio, grow their skills, and get to know one another. I got the chance to speak about many of the resources that the Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) technical team produces.

During one of the team dinners, a solutions architect came up to thank me for the work I was doing. Content I produced made an impact on his career. He felt more confident as a technologist and as a Red Hatter.

That moment was humbling to me. It wasn’t but a few years ago that I was on the other end of that conversation, where I was guided into my current career path by friends and co-workers. Busy and intelligent people saw more for me than I saw for myself.

Step out of your comfort zone. Make some human connections with people. The impact you have on them will also impact you.

This article was originally published on the Enable SysAdmin blog.

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